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The National Agricultural Workers Survey

Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS) 2001 - 2002
A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farm Workers

Appendix B: Index of Means and Percentages of Key Variables

Note: Sum of all portions may not equal 100 percent because of rounding.

Chapter 1 Variables

Mean or Percentage

Place of Birth

100%

Mexico

75%

United States (including Puerto Rico)

23%

Central America

2%

Other Country

1%

 

Mexico Sending Region

States in Region

100%

Agricultural Northwest

Baja California, Sinaloa, Sonora

7%

Northwest

Chihuahua, Coahuila

2%

Northeast

Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas

8%

Core North Central

Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes

4%

Core Northeast

San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo

8%

Pacific Central

Nayarit, Colima

3%

West Central

Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan

46%

Urban Federal District

Estado de Mexico, Mexico Distrito Federal

3%

Pacific South

Guerrero, Oaxaca, Chiapas

11%

Gulf

Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Morelos, Veracruz, Quintana Roo

9%

Ethnicity

100%

Mexican American

7%

Mexican

72%

Chicano

1%

Other Hispanic

3%

Not Hispanic or Latino

16%

 

Race

100%

White

41%

Black or African American

4%

American Indian / Alaskan Native / Indigenous

8%

Asian

<1%

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

<1%

      Other

47%

   

Foreign-born Workers:

100%

Years Passed Since First U.S. Arrival

 

<1

22%

1 - 2

11%

3 - 4

9%

5 - 9

16%

10 - 14

13%

15 +

29%

 

Foreign-born Workers:

 

Years Passed Since First U.S. Arrival, by Place of Birth

 

Mexico

10

Central America

5

 

Foreign-born Newcomers:

 

Share Among All Crop Workers

16%

 

Employment Eligibility (All Workers)

100%

Work authorized

47%

Citizens

25%

Legal permanent residents

21%

Other

1%

Unauthorized

53%

 

Migrant Types

100%

Settled (non migrant)

58%

Migrant

42%

Foreign-born newcomer

16%

International shuttle

13%

International follow-the-crop

2%

Domestic shuttle

6%

Domestic follow-the-crop

6%

 

 


Chapter 2 Variables

 

Mean or Percentage

Gender is Male

79%

 

 

Age

33

 

Age cohorts

100%

14 - 17

6%

18 - 19

5%

20 - 24

20%

25 - 34

30%

35 - 44

20%

45 - 54

12%

55 - 64

6%

65 +

1%

 

Age by Demographic Characteristics

 

All Crop Workers

33

Foreign-born

 

All Foreign-born

32

 

Authorized Foreign-born

40

Unauthorized Foreign-born

28

 

Newcomers

24

Arrived more than year ago

34

 

Born in Mexico

32

Born in Central American country

28

 

 

U.S.-born

 

All U.S.-born

36

 

 

African American

43

White

36

Hispanic

33

 

 

Family Type

100%

Married parent

45%

Married, no children

12%

Unmarried parent

6%

Single, no children

37%

 

Number of Children of Parent Respondents

 

Average

2

 

 

Number of children

100%

1

31%

2

33%

3

20%

4

10%

5

3%

6

2%

7+

1%

 

Cohabitation of Parent and Minor Children

100%

Parent lives with all minor children

61%

Parent lives away from all minor children

37%

Parent lives with some of minor children

2%

 

Crop Worker: Unity with / Separation from Nuclear Family

100%

Accompanied (lives with at least one nuclear family member)

43%

Unaccompanied (living away from all nuclear family)

57%

 

 

Among unaccompanied

100%

Single, no children

61%

Parents

31%

Married, no children

8%

 

Chapter 3 Variables

 

Mean or Percentage

 

Native Language

100%

Spanish

81%

English

18%

Other

2%

 

Education

 

Highest grade completed

7th

 

      Years of Schooling

100%

No schooling

4%

1st - 3rd grade

13%

4th - 7th grade

38%

8th - 11th grade

28%

12th grade

13%

13 + years

5%

 

Highest grade completed by place of birth

 

United States

11th

All foreign-born

6th

 

Participation in adult education in the U.S. (lifetime)

20%

 

Type of adult education (multiple responses)

 

English

10%

GED

5%

College or university

3%

Citizenship class

2%

Job training

2%

Other

1%

 

 

 

 

Ability to Speak English

100%

Not at all

44%

A little

26%

Some

6%

Well

24%

 

Ability to Read English

100%

Not at all

53%

A little

20%

Some

6%

Well

22%

 

 

Chapter 4 Variables

 

Mean or Percentage

Farm Employers

 

Average No. of farm employers in previous year

1.43

 

Number of farm employers in previous year

100%

1

72%

2

18%

3

6%

4

2%

5 +

1%

 

Time Employed and Not Employed in Previous Year

 

Activity Weeks (excluding foreign-born newcomers)

 

farm work

34

non farm work

5

in the United States but not working

9

outside of the United States

4

 

Number of Farm Workdays in Previous Year

 

All workers

174

All authorized workers

185

      All unauthorized workers

165

      Foreign-born newcomers

90

 

 

U.S. Farm Work Experience

 

(excluding foreign-born newcomers)

 

Average number of years of U.S. farm work

12

 

Number of years of U.S. farm work

100%

0 - 1

8%

2 - 4

24%

5 - 10

26%

11 - 20

23%

21 +

18%

   

Employment Plans and Expectations

 

Number of years planning to do farm work

 

Less than 1

4%

1 - 3

12%

4 - 5

5%

More than 5

6%

More than 5 and as long as able

66%

Other

7%

 

Crop worker believes could obtain non-farm job in one month

100%

Yes

37%

No

42%

Not sure

21%

 

 

Chapter 5 Variables

 

Mean or Percentage

Employer Type

100%

Employer is a grower (direct hire)

79%

Employer is a farm labor contractor

21%

 

Primary Crop at Current Farm Job

100%

Fruit and nut

34%

Vegetable

31%

Horticultural

18%

Field

14%

Miscellaneous

4%

 

Primary Task at Current Farm Job

100%

Pre-harvest

16%

Harvest

30%

Post-harvest

9%

Technical production

17%

Other

27%

 

How Obtained Current Farm Job

100%

Applied on own

26%

Referred by friend, relative, or fellow worker

70%

Recruited by grower, foreman, or labor contractor

3%

 

 

Years Working for Current Farm Employer

 

Average number of years

4

 

Number of years

100%

0 - 1

35%

2 - 3

28%

4 - 5

13%

6 - 7

7%

8 - 9

4%

10 +

13%

 

Seasonality of Current Farm Job

100%

Year-round

60%

Seasonal

25%

Not sure

15%

 

Hours Worked in Previous Week at

 

Current Farm Job

42

 

 

Basis for Pay, Current Farm Job

100%

By the hour

79%

By the piece

16%

Combination, hourly and piece

3%

Salary

2%

 

Hourly Wage at Current Farm Job

$7.25

 

Cash Bonus Given

100%

Yes

22%

No

65%

Not sure

13%

 

 

Type of Cash Bonus (when given)

 

(multiple responses)

 

Holiday bonus

51%

Incentive award

12%

      Bonus contingent on employer's profits

5%

End-of-season payment

32%

Transportation stipend

1%

Other

5%

 

Eligible for Unemployment Insurance

100%

Yes

39%

No

54%

Not sure

8%

 

Covered by Workers' Compensation

100%

Yes

48%

No

20%

Not sure

31%

 

 

Covered by Health Insurance

100%

Yes

23%

No

76%

 

Source of Health Insurance (for those covered)

100%

Current farm employer

46%

Government

19%

Self, spouse, or family

15%

Spouse's employer

12%

Other

7%

 

 

Housing Arrangement during Current Farm Job

100%

Rents from non employer

58%

Employer provides for free

17%

Rents from employer

4%

      Worker or worker's family owns

19%

      Stays for free with family or friend

2%

 

Housing Location during Current Farm Job

100%

      Off farm, non employer administered

80%

      Off farm, employer administered

6%

      On farm

14%

 

Housing Type during Current Farm Job

100%

Single family home or unit

55%

Apartment

22%

Trailer or mobile home

16%

Dormitory or barracks

3%

      Duplex / conjoined multifamily structure

2%

Motel / hotel

1%

 

Daily Worksite Availability of

 

      Drinking water and disposable cups

80%

Water for washing hands

95%

Toilet

93%

 

Mode of Transportation to Current Farm Job

100%

Drives a car

42%

Walks

8%

Rides in car with others

35%

Rides a labor bus

8%

Pays a driver "Raitero"

7%

 

Tools and Equipment (when they are utilized) Paid by:

 

Employer

84%

Worker

12%

Both

3%

 

Chapter 6 Variables

 

Mean or Percentage

Individual Income, All U.S. Sources, Previous Calendar Year

 

Average individual income range

$10,000 - $12,499

 

 

Individual income range

100%

$0 - $999

2%

$1,000 - $2,499

4%

$2,500 - $4,999

7%

$5,000 - $7,499

11%

$7,500 - $9,999

14%

$10,000 - $12,499

19%

$12,500 - $14,999

15%

$15,000 - $17,499

9%

$17,500 - $19,999

7%

$20,000 - $24,999

6%

$25,000 - $29,999

4%

$30,000 +

3%

 

Family Income, All U.S. Sources, Previous Calendar Year

 

Average family income range

$15,000 - $17,499

 

 

Family income range

100%

$0 - $999

2%

$1,000 - $2,499

3%

$2,500 - $4,999

5%

$5,000 - $7,499

7%

$7,500 - $9,999

11%

$10,000 - $12,499

15%

$12,500 - $14,999

13%

$15,000 - $17,499

8%

$17,500 - $19,999

9%

$20,000 - $24,999

9%

$25,000 - $29,999

7%

$30,000 +

13%

 

Assets Owned or Buying in the United States

 

(all workers, multiple responses)

 

Plot of land

4%

Home

17%

Mobile home

3%

Car or truck

49%

 

Assets Owned or Buying in a Foreign Country

 

(foreign-born workers, multiple responses)

 

Plot of land

7%

Home

43%

Mobile home

0%

Car or truck

3%

 

 

Households Receiving Payments from

 

Contribution-Based Programs (last two years)

 

Unemployment Insurance

21%

Social Security

2%

Disability Insurance

1%

 

Households Receiving Benefits from

 

Needs-Based Programs (last two years)

 

Medicaid

15%

      Women Infants and Children (WIC)

11%

      Food Stamps

8%

      Public Housing

1%


Appendix A

Table of Contents

Footnotes