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Annotated Bibliography

Below are citations to sources that are referenced within the solicitation for grant applications (SGA), or have informed the development of the SGA, and may be of interest to grant applicants. These references are provided for informational purposes only and the U.S. Department of Labor does not endorse or favor any approaches or programs that are included in this bibliography.

"Adult Career Pathways Training and Support Center." Web. 2011.
The Adult Career Pathways program supports adult education providers in designing, implementing, and improving Adult Career Pathways programs. The support center offers a robust collection of instructional resources, implementation strategies, best practices, research and other tools as well as collaborative peer learning opportunities and resource sharing.


Almandshmith, Sherry, Mary Walshok, Kay Magill, Linda Toms Barker, Pamela Surko, Mary Vencill, Tommy Smith, Hannah Betesh and June Chocheles. "Early Implementation of Generation I of the Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) Initiative." ETA Occasional Papers, 2008-03, U.S Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2008.
The Workforce Innovation in Regional Economic Development (WIRED) Initiative is intended to support and catalyze the integration of talent and skills development into a region's larger economic strategies. It supports innovative approaches to education and workforce development that go beyond traditional strategies for preparing workers to compete and succeed both within the United States and globally. This evaluation report describes: 1) the activities and achievements of the first Generation of WIRED regions in their efforts to move towards regional transformation; 2) the issues related to goals, strategies, activities, organizational structure and governance and how these have evolved over the first year of operations; and 3) the involvement of the workforce investment system in these initial stages. The report lays the groundwork for future analysis of the regions' collective efforts to transform their education, workforce investment and economic development systems that will be provided in future reports from the evaluation teams.


Baider, Allegra, Vickie Choitz, Amy Ellen Duke-Benfield, Marcie W.M. Foster, Linda Harris, Elizabeth Lower-Basch, Neil Ridley and Julie Strawn. "Funding Career Pathways and Career Pathway Bridges: A Federal Policy Toolkit for States." Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP). 2010.
This policy toolkit lays out several core components of career pathway programs based on 7 states who are participating in a career pathway initiative: Multiple entry points; Innovations in program content and delivery, (e.g., flexible scheduling, contextualization, integration of bridge programs); Sequence of education and training leading to credentials with value in the labor market; Support services (provided by community organizations, community colleges, and/or other organizations); and Strong role for employers in pathway development, worksite training, and contribution of resources.


Barnow, Burt and John Trutko. "Implementing Efficiency Measures for Employment and Training Programs." ETA Occasional Papers, 2010-05, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. May 2010.
This study makes recommendations for the development and implementation of measures of efficiency for employment and training programs administered by the Department of Labor. A key lesson that emerges from this study is that it is critical in selecting measures, standards, rewards, and sanctions to anticipate the behavioral changes that are likely to be induced by the performance management policies adopted and to structure the system so that the presence of efficiency measures does not result in undesirable behavior by programs, states, and grantees. This report also recommends use of program expenditures (rather than appropriations or obligations) as the measure of program costs in efficiency measures. Among the efficiency measures recommended for consideration in this report are cost per entered employment, cost per retained in employment, cost divided by post-program (average) earnings, and cost divided by change in earnings.


Baron, Jon. "Gold-Standard Program Evaluations, On a Shoestring Budget." Education Week blog posting. October 5, 2011.
This post by post by Jon Baron, President of the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, and Chairman of the National Board for Education Sciences, describes examples of low-cost random assignment evaluations of education programs. It illustrates that high-quality evaluation can be done on a limited budget.


Bloomer, Tina. "I-BEST: A Program Integrating Adult Basic Education and Workforce Training." Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. December 2005.
The Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) offered by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges system, pairs English as a second language with professional technical instruction to provide students with needed skills. In 2004 the state implemented 10 demonstration sites that focused on specific language competencies for application in an employment environment as part of ESL instruction. This report summarizes information about the project and outlines lessons learned, emphasizing the need to coordinate with other partners including employers.


Burtless, Gary. "Trends in the Structure of the Labor Market and Unemployment – Implication for U.S. Unemployment Insurance." ETA Occasional Papers, 2009-09, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2009.
This report provides a timely review of the internal and external forces of change affecting the U.S. labor force within a global economy and the implications for the U.S. Unemployment Insurance (UI) System. Authored by Gary Burtless of the Brookings Institution, the report explores observed industrial shifts, trends in the U.S. business cycle, changes in the composition of the U.S. labor force, trends in the nature and cost of unemployment, and the current effectiveness of UI, since the program's inception in 1935. The report concludes with policy suggestions for enhancing UI program effectiveness in the new economy, while accurately identifying three competing objectives of the UI program that policy makers should take into account: provide adequate income to eligible claimants; control total program costs; and minimize the adverse incentive effects of the UI program on workers' job search behavior. Changes in the system that improve the protection available to laid-off workers will often increase program costs or increase the adverse incentives to delay seeking employment.


"Career Pathways: I-BEST." Tacoma Community College. Web. June 2011.
This website is dedicated to the career pathway initiative at Tacoma Community College in Washington. I-BEST programs are for students who want to improve English language or basic skills but also want to earn a college-level certificate or 2-year degree. Students have two teachers in each class: one professional-technical instructor, and one English-language or basic skills instructor. In addition, I-BEST students receive additional support for each professional-technical course.


Chisman, Forrest. "Background and Supporting Evidence for Adult Education for Work." National Center on Education and the Economy, Workforce Development Strategies Group. October 2009.
This paper provides specific steps the adult education system can take to develop and implement career pathways systems of learning that move low-skilled adults through work-oriented adult education programs and onto postsecondary programs. First, it briefly reviews how the basic skills problem in this country affects our economy and explains why the present response of the adult education system is inadequate to meet that problem. Second, it presents an overall vision of how a more comprehensive career pathways learning system that meets our nation's education and skill needs could be constructed, and the role that an Adult Education for Work system should play in that broader system. Third, it details specific measures that adult education programs can take (through the identification of quality elements) to make that vision a reality, focusing on seven areas: program design, curriculum and instruction, assessment and credentialing, high-quality teaching, support and follow-up services to encourage access and retention, connections to the business community, and monitoring and accountability systems.


"College and Career Transitions Initiative." League for Innovation in the Community College. Web. 2011.
The College and Career Transitions Initiative, funded by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education(OVAE), represented a partnership with six sites which banded together to investigate strategies to close the achievement gap; create meaningful educational options that help students with diverse backgrounds and needs reach uniformly high standards; and ensure that students attain these high standards at each level of their educational careers. See the resources produced under this initiative including publications, best practices, a toolkit and more.


Dorrer, John. "Using Real-Time Labor Market Information to Support Credential Attainment and Career Pathways [Webinar]." Workforce3One. March 22, 2011.
The purpose of the webinar is to help those implementing career pathways systems use real-time labor market information to support their career pathway efforts.


Dunham, Kate, Jeff Salzman and Vinz Koller. "Business as Partner and Customer under WIA: A Study of Innovative Practices." ETA Occasional Papers, 2004-06, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2004..
This report documents observations and findings from the Evaluation of the Implementation of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), including efforts to better engage employers in all aspects of workforce development. It outlines several local areas' efforts to more effectively meet the employment-related needs of both job seekers and businesses by making the business community the One-Stop system's primary customer. Key practices that effectively involve businesses in all aspects of One-Stop operations through partnerships and the use of business services, including innovative new partnerships with Chambers of Commerce and economic development agencies, are highlighted as are examples of effective practices for recruiting and retaining active and able business members on their Workforce Investment Boards. The paper also describes crucial elements for forging successful business partnerships, practices for providing high-quality business services, strategies to ensure that business involvement is successful overall, and, finally, suggestions from local sites for changing the Workforce Investment Act and related workforce development programs.

Dunham, Kate, Melissa Mach, Jeffrey Salzman and Andrew Wiegand. "Evaluation of the WIA Performance Measurement System: Final Report." ETA Occasional Papers, 2006-12, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2006.
Enacted in 1998, the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) established a performance accountability system with the purpose of assessing the "…effectiveness of States and local areas in achieving continuous improvement of workforce investment activities." The Evaluation of the WIA Performance Measurement System provides a comprehensive picture of the accountability system and examines the intended and unintended consequences of the system for participant selection and service design and delivery. The survey report, based on a survey of WIA local areas conducted in 2004, provides descriptive information about the full range of areas' policies and practices related to performance accountability, including what performance goals and measures have been established and what tools are used for purposes of performance management. The report also examines how policies and practices relating to performance accountability affect decisions about what types of customers are served and with what services and outcomes. The final report includes a discussion of elements of the performance measurement system, how those elements are communicated to those who operate the system, and how the service design and delivery under WIA is influenced by the performance measurement system. Additionally, the report incorporates changes made to the performance measurement system after implementation of the common measures proposed by the Office of Management and Budget.

Haskins, Ron and Jon Baron. "Building the Connection Between Policy and Evidence: The Obama Evidence-Based Initiatives." U.K. National Endowment for Science, Technology, and the Arts. September 2011.
This article describes the Workforce Innovation Fund and five other initiatives launched by the Obama Administration to identify and scale up promising program models. It provides context to better understand the overall goals of the Workforce Innovation Fund.


Hollenbeck, Kevin. "WIA Net Impact Estimates and Rates of Return." Presented at European Commission - Sponsored meeting, "What the European Social Fund Can Learn from the WIA Experience," Washington, DC. 2009.
This paper provides an example of methodology that can be used to estimate net impacts of training and employment programs using administrative data to create a comparison group. It also describes a methodology to conduct a cost-benefit analysis.

"Investing in Innovation Fund (I3)." U.S. Department of Education. Web. 2011.


Jenkins, Davis, Matthew Zeidenberg and Gregory Kienzl. "Building Bridges to Postsecondary Training for Low-Skill Adults: Outcomes of Washington State's I-BEST Program." Community College Research Center (CCRC) Brief, Number 42. May 2009.
The CCRC study compared the educational outcomes over a two-year tracking period of I-BEST students with those of other basic skills students. The study found that students participating in I-BEST achieved better educational outcomes than did other basic skills students, including those who enrolled in at least one non-I-BEST workforce course. I-BEST students were more likely than others to: Continue into credit-bearing coursework; Earn credits that count toward a college credential; Earn occupational certificates; and Make point gains on basic skills tests. On all the outcomes examined, I-BEST students did moderately or substantially better than non-I-BEST basic skills students in general.


Kauder, Tonnie and Robin Gwathney. "One-Stop Innovations: Leading Change Under the WIA One-Stop System." ETA Occasional Papers, 2002-05, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2002.
The purpose of this study is to identify, document widely disseminate – via the Internet and other appropriate mechanisms – success stories and promising practices of One-Stop Career center across the county operating under the Workforce Investment Act.


Lea, Charles, Annelies Goger, Ronald D. D'Amico, Kate Dunham, Andrew Wiegand, Sheryl Ude and Nicole Rigg. "Findings from a Study of One-Stop Services: A Case-Study Approach." ETA Occasional Papers, 2011-16, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2011.
This report is the final report from an evaluation of the delivery of self-services in the One-Stop Career Center system. The evaluation profiles characteristics of customers who use self-services, motivations for using services, patterns of usage and outcomes that follow at selected One-Stop Career Centers nationwide. The report also examines ways that One-Stop Career Centers facilitate access to self-services, staff assistance provided, and the availability of resources and tools. The report is based on surveys of all local workforce investment areas (LWIAs), extracts of self-service usage data, site visits to 22 LWIAs, surveys of self-directed services users in five LWIAs and Unemployment Insurance wage record data for two states.


Leach, Michael. "The Arkansas Career Pathway initiative: A New Model for Delivering Postsecondary Training to Adult Students." Southern Good Faith Fund. 2008.
This brief describes the Arkansas Career Pathways Initiative (CPI). Currently, there are 25 sites in Arkansas, including all 22 two-year colleges in the state participating in the initiative. The report looks at changes in population characteristics in Arkansas as a means to target services. Their statewide model has allowed them to align policies and programs to leverage resources. Key components of the Career Pathways Initiative are discussed in detail.


Maguire, Sheila, Joshua Freely, Carol Clymer, Maureen Conway and Deena Schwartz. "Tuning In to Local Labor Markets: Findings From the Sectoral Employment Impact Study." Public/Private Ventures. 2010.
This study found that participants in sector-focused education and training programs were more likely to work, earned significantly higher wages, and were more likely to work in jobs with benefits than control group members. The study also found that successful sector-focused programs require strong organizational capacity and adaptability among the involved workforce organizations; strong links to local employers that result in an understanding of the targeted occupations and connections to jobs; job readiness and basic skills training linked to occupational training; recruitment screening and intake processes that result in a good match between the applicant, the program, and the target occupation; and individualized supportive services to encourage training completion and success in the workplace.


OMB Memorandum (M-11-21). "Implementing the Presidential Memorandum: Administrative Flexibility, Lower Costs, and Better Results for State, Local, and Tribal Governments." April 29, 2011.


"Perkins Collaborative Resource Network." U.S. Department of Educaiton. Web. 2011.
The Perkins Collaborative Resource Network, the face of the Division of Academic and Technical Education, is a resource and information-sharing forum for state career and technical education professionals. Learn about a framework of ten components that work together to create rigorous Programs of Study. Additionally, find guidance on how to infuse green standards into the career clusters.

"Policy to Performance Initiative." Web. 2011.
The Policy to Performance (P2P) initiative, supported by OVAE, assists states with effective policy development to support college and career readiness for low-skilled adults and adult learners. The web site features resources and case studies to assist education state directors, policymakers, and key stakeholders with transitioning low-skilled adult and adult learners through the education, training, and employment continuum.

"Social Innovation Fund." Corporation for National and Community Service. Web. 2011.


Social Policy Research Associates. "Six Key Elements Readiness Assessment Tool." August 2011.
The Six Key Elements Readiness Assessment Tool assists teams in forming and implementing their career pathways initiative at the local and state levels. This tool help teams assess their state's career pathways initiative by looking at progress, priorities, gaps, technical assistance needs, and next steps.


"Stem Transitions." Center for Occupational Research and Development. Web. 2011.
STEM Transitions is a project of the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD), with funding from OVAE and under cooperative agreement with the League for Innovation in the Community College. This project builds on the work of the College and Career Transitions Initiative. The site offers 61 curriculum projects that are ready to use in six Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) career cluster courses.


Stephens, Rosanna Perry. "Charting A Path: An Exploration of the Statewide Career Pathway Efforts In Arkansas, Kentucky, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin." Seattle Jobs Initiative. May 2009.
This report, produced in partnership and with the primary support of the Working Poor Families Project, highlights the statewide career pathway efforts in Arkansas, Kentucky, Oregon, Washington, and Wisconsin. The career pathways framework is broken into identifying target populations, target sectors, employer engagement, and support services. In moving to implementation, this report discusses how states have motivated stakeholders, funded their programs, and challenges they've faced.


"Workforce Competitiveness Resource Collection." Web. 2011.
The Workforce Competitiveness Resource Collection, available through OVAE's Literacy Information and Communication System repository, includes resources further categorized into those applicable to workforce basic skills education, English language acquisition, and/or technology.


Wright, David J. and Lisa M. Montiel. "Workforce System One-Stop Services for Public Assistance and Other Low-Income Populations: Lessons Learned in Selected States." ETA Occasional Papers, 2011-04, U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Washington, DC. 2011.
In 2009, under a grant from the Employment and Training Administration, the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government undertook a field network research study of selected sites to examine how Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) clients are served by the Workforce Investment Act's (WIA) One-Stop Career Centers. The research sought to define the nature of the cooperative, administrative, operational and financial relationships between the WIA and TANF programs. The field research resulted in this report which contains a set of structured case studies of such relationships in Sacramento and Modesto Counties in California; Macon and Columbus Counties in Georgia; and the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County in Missouri. To inform this report, Rockefeller gathered and analyzed information on the experiences of key stakeholders in settings with a successful track record of serving TANF and other low-income populations through One-Stop Career Centers, where such experience is the result of local decisions rather than centralized state services or state-mandated program alignments. Rockefeller conducted interviews and on-site observations with key informants, including senior administrative and program management at the selected One-Stop Career Centers and the local Workforce Investment Board (WIB), as well as contacts with the employment and social service agencies at the state and county levels. The study also included an analysis of administrative data on client caseloads, types of services, and performance indicators.